Hamzathul vasl is an Alif with a curvy damma-like symbol on top of it. That symbol is a small sawd that has been stripped. Hamzathul vasl occurs only in mus-hafs with usmani script.
If HV occurs in the beginning of an ayah as the very 1st letter then :
1. Check if there is Laam following the HV. If yes, then apply a fat-ha on the Alif and recite.
eg. Surah Fatiha Verse 2,3
2. If there is no Laam following HV, move on to the next letter (3rd letter from the begining of ayah).
If the 3rd letter has a fat-ha or a kasra, then apply a kasra on the Alif in HV. eg. 1:6, 96:1
If the 3rd letter has a damma, then apply a damma on the Alif in HV.
Madd means “lengthening or extension”.
Original (ASLI) Madd :
Alif Madd : Whenever a letter with a fat-ha is followed by a alif saakin, the fat-ha is prolonged for 2 counts.
Ya Madd : Whenever a letter with a kasra is followed by a ya saakin, the kasra is prolonged for 2 counts.
Waaw Madd : Whenever a letter with a damma is followed by a waaw saakin, the damma is prolonged for 2 counts.
Whenever we stop at a fat-hatein either at the end of ayah or to draw a breath, we have to replace the fat-hatein with an
alif madd. eg. 110:2 afwaajan turns to afwaajaa
Madd – Lengthening caused by hamza
Madd Muttasil (connected madd)/obligatory madd
If hamza follows a madd letter within 1 word, the madd letter must be held for 4 or 5 counts.
It is obligatory. In the mus-hafs, whenever this madd occurs, there is a tilda-like sign.
Madd Munfasil (seperated madd)/optional madd
If a madd letter occurs at the end of a word and the next word begins with hamzah, there is
an option of holding the madd letter for 4 or 5 counts. In the mus-hafs, here also the same
tilda-like sign occurs. So we have a choice of 2 counts or 4/5 counts here.
Lengthening caused by sukoon
1. Aaridh : Madd exposed to Sukoon
The cause of this madd is the sukoon which is produced by stopping on a given word and omission of its vowel, like at the end of ayah. A madd letter immediately precieding such a stop may be lengthened. The madd letter may be held for 2, 4 or 6 counts.
eg. Surah Al-fatiha – end of ayah of all verses
2. Leen : Madd of Ease
It occurs when the letter preceding the stop is a letter of leen.
leen letter : waaw or yaa sakina preceded by a fat-ha.
The leen letter is extended for 2, 4, or 6 counts.
eg. Surah Quraish (106) – end of ayah of all verses
3. Laazim madd (compulsory madd)
If the madd letter is followed by a sukoon or shaddah, it has to be prolonged for 6 counts. There is a tilda-like symbol in the mus-hafs for this madd.
eg. 10:51, 10:91 aaaaaalaana
eg. Surah Fatiha V 7 waladdhaaaaaalleen
1. Alif – Read as it is
2. Madd of 2 Harakas : haa, yaa, thaw, hhaa (deep one), raw
short cut to remember the above : hayaathuhhur
3. 6 Harakas : noon, qawf, sawd, ‘ain, seen, laam, kaaf, meem
short cut to rememeber the above letters : naqoso ‘aslakum