Tajweed means perfection.
Quraan means recitation.
Mus-haf is our holy book with Arabic text. Anything with translation is not a mus-haf.
Makhaarij means pronunciation.
Tashkeel means vowel.
In arabic, the 3 vowels are fat-ha, kasra, damma.
fat-ha (soft)/ Zabar – gives the a sound (apple/bat/jam……)
fat-ha (hard)/ Zabar- gives the aw sound (raw)
Kasra/Zer – gives the e sound (see)
Damma/Pesh – gives u sound (to..)Shadda – for giving double sound – looks like w
Sukoon – letter without vowel
In tajweed Arabic, some letters are hard or heavy and some are soft or light.
Tafkheem : hard/heavy
Tarqeeq : soft/light
Letter name/with fat-ha Letter number
Qawf/ Qaw 21
The remaining 20 letters are soft. To say the hard letters try to make your lips like a circle (an angry face). To say soft letters make a smile on your face.
Harakat means count(about a second).
Fat-hatain : 2 fat-has
Kasratain : 2 kasras
Dammatain : 2 dammas
Noon saakin : Noon with a sukoon or no vowel.
Yaa sakin : Yaa with a sukoon or no vowel.
Vow sakin : Vow with a sukoon or no vowel.
Long vowels :
Alif mad :Whenever a letter with a fat-ha is followed by an Alif, the fat-ha sound is prolonged for 2 counts(about 2 seconds).
Ya mad : Whenever a letter with a kasra is followed by a ya, the kasra sound is prolonged for 2 counts.
Vow mad: Whenever a letter with a damma is followed by a vow, the damma sound is prolongedfor 2 counts.
taa marbutah : ha with 2 dots (of ta ) on top
Alif maksoorah : standing fat-ha
Hamzatul vasal : Alif with a curvy/wavy damma like sign. It occurs only in usmani script. It is the first letter in Surah Al-Fatiha.
Ghunnah : A nasal sound associated when u say meem or noon and is held for 2 Harakats.
Meem & Noon mushaddada:
When noon or meem is doubled, as indicated by a shadda, ghunnah should be applied, duration of which is 2 harakats.